Creating an Online Banking System with Python and Object-Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a fundamental concept in software engineering that allows for the organization and modular structuring of code. Python, known for its clear and concise syntax, is an ideal language for implementing OOP principles. In this article, we will explore the basics of OOP in Python by creating a simple online banking system.

### **An Overview of OOP Concepts**
Before diving into the coding process, it’s essential to grasp the key concepts of OOP:
– **Classes**: Blueprints for creating objects, defining attributes and methods.
– **Objects**: Instances of classes that encapsulate data and behavior.
– **Inheritance**: Allows a subclass to inherit attributes and methods from a superclass, promoting code reuse.
– **Constructor**: The `__init__()` method initializes objects with initial values for attributes.

### **How to Build An Online Banking System**
Start by establishing the basic structure of our online banking system using OOP principles.

#### **How to Create A Class and Constructor**
Create a class and initialize it with a constructor:
class Account:
def __init__(self, name, account_number, balance): = name
self.account_number = account_number
self.balance = balance

In the above code snippet:
– The `class` keyword defines the `Account` class.
– The `__init__()` method serves as the constructor.
– `self` refers to the instance of the class.
– Various parameters like `name`, `account_number`, and `balance` are passed to the constructor, initializing corresponding attributes of the `Account` class.

#### **How to Create Methods (functions)**
Next, create methods for the `Account` class to enable deposit and withdrawal operations.

##### **How to create a deposit method**
def deposit(self, amount):
self.balance += amount
print(f”{} Deposited {amount} $. Current balance is: {self.balance}”)

##### **How to create a withdraw method**
def withdraw(self, amount):
if self.balance >= amount:
self.balance -= amount
print(f”{} Withdrew {amount} $. Current balance is: {self.balance}”)
print(“You don’t have enough funds to withdraw.”)

### **How Inheritance Works**
To exemplify inheritance, let’s create a `Savings_Account` class that inherits from the `Account` class.
class Savings_Account(Account):
def __init__(self, name, account_number, balance, interest_rate):
super().__init__(name, account_number, balance)
self.interest_rate = interest_rate

#### **How to Create An `add_interest` Method**
def add_interest(self):
interest = self.balance * self.interest_rate

### **How to Create and Use Objects**
Remember, a class is just a template – you need objects for the class to function. Here’s how to create instances and interact with them:
account1 = Account(“John Doe”, “123456”, 1000)

savings_account = Savings_Account(“John Doe”, “789012”, 2000, 0.05)

### **Conclusion**
Object-oriented programming offers a robust approach to writing reusable and maintainable code. Python’s simplicity lends itself well to learning and implementing OOP concepts. Through building a basic online banking system, we’ve covered fundamental concepts of classes, objects, and inheritance in Python. Happy coding!

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